Humans as Co-Creators (Philokalia III, Ilias the Presbyter, A Gnomic Anthology Part lll)

Throughout Philokalia the underlying framework for salvation is a lifelong and transformative journey leading us in stages from preoccupation with material things and destructive passions to a true union with God (deification or theosis).

The journey unfolds in three primary stages: renunciation of the world, elucidation or understanding and, finally, theosis. lias focuses on the gradual transformation of the intellect in the course of this journey, with contemplation being the highest form of intellect.    

While still attached to the material world,  our thoughts are limited to what we can see and touch. As we progress, and we are able to clear our minds of obsessive thoughts and raging passions, we can see the world with renewed and unobstructive vision and see things we were unable to perceive before. We can now distinguish the hidden essence of things beyond appearance and physical reality.

The inner principles of corporeal realities are concealed like bones within objects apprehended by the senses: no one who has not transcended attachment to sensible things can see them.

Beyond undergoing inner transformation, however, Ilias points to our role as agents of transformation, ourselves.

An important objective of the ascetic discipline that is required in order to achieve union with God, is to reach a state of inner peace and silence by cultivating dispassion. As we progress in our spiritual journey, we gain increasing control over our inner turmoil and are no longer tossed about by passions in whatever direction they take us.

By exercising self-control and restraint, we differentiate ourselves from the rest of creation. .

A river, Ilias tells us, cannot change the flow of its water or the turbulence within it by natural means. Yet we, as humans, can change the course of our thinking and put an end to our inner  turmoil.

108. It is less hard to check the downward flow of a river than for one who prays to check the turbulence of the intellect when he wishes, preventing it from fragmenting itself among visible things and concentrating it on the higher realities kindred to it. This is so in spite of the fact that to check the flow of a river is contrary to nature, while to check the turbulence of the intellect accords with nature.

This is a message of enormous hope as well as a clear differentiation between man and the rest of the creation. We do not have to become defeated by depression, sorrow, fear, anger or despair. On our journey from attachment to matter to complete union to God, we gradually gain the capacity to remain whole in the face of fragmentation and serene in the face of turmoil.  

Yet the unique role of man in God’s universe that separates him from the rest of creation goes beyond self-control.

Man is not simply a created being among other created beings. He is an entire world within the world:

112. Within the visible world, man is as it were a second world; and the same is true of thought within the intelligible world.

Ilias goes further. Human beings are not simply passive objects within God’s creation  but, in a small way, co-creators themselves. Man is “the herald of heaven and earth, and of all that is in them.”  Most significantly, man, is created with the ability to think and speak and, hence, the inherent capacity to interpret and give voice to God’s creation. What are the implications of this?

Without articulation, Ilias concludes, the universe would be silent.

Without man and thought both the sensible and the intelligible worlds would be inarticulate.

Imagine an unarticulate world. God’s wonder is experienced  existentially but cannot be communicated or understood. It cannot be   transformed into a wellspring of meaning and inspiration by the intellect, become  a guide for our lives and passed on to the next generation.

This is an amazing statement but has many precedents. In Genesis II, for example, Adam is asked by God to name all the animals.  

Genesis II: 19. ” And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every fowl of the air; and. brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever. Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof

Man’s ability to name, articulate, make sense of and perpetuate God’s glory complements God’s creation. With a nous purified by prayer and ascetic practice, we are both the recipients and co-creators of God’s glory and gift or continuous renewal. .

If our roles are to articulate and communicate the meaning of the created world, we can see artistic expression, in its ideal form, as a fulfillment of that role.   

Fr. Silouan Justiniano writes on the subject and quotes Ilias:

…We can also depict these from artistic models and Nature, seeing them through the “new eyes” of the heart that the integrated knowledge of the timeless pictorial principles of the canon gives us.   In the case of iconography what Ilias the Presbyter calls “the intellects principles,” can be seen as the pictorial principles of the canon. Thereby, sense-perception is uplifted and transfigured from outward appearance by bringing out of it the apprehension of archetypes in symbolic representation.

In iconography, “the creative act of transfiguring Nature, as Ilias points out, the imagination serves as a ladder, through which images ascend and descend, after they have been imprinted by the intellect.”

In this process the painter, without even being fully aware of it, is in a state of contemplation as he is in the process of “apprehending the invisible in the visible, and “pondering things in the heart,” as to determine artistically how to best outwardly manifest or symbolize the image within him.”

(Fr. Silouan Justiniano,  May 20, 2013, “Archetype and Symbol III: On Noetic Vision, Continued”

So those who follow Christ’s path to the ultimate union with God, become both transformed and transformational. They are constantly renewed so that their new sight penetrates under the surface and uncovers new things never before imagined, and agents of renewal by understanding, articulating and sharing the meaning of creation.

Mere Guests in our Father’s Home: Ilias the Presbyter, A Gnomic Anthology Part IV in Philokalia, vol. 3

# 33-53

Through contemplation, Ilias has told us, we can reach theosis–union with God and unity with ourselves and God’s universe.

Ilias wants us to understand the stages of the intellect along the way, and perceive our progress as a lifelong journey. “The first stage of ascetic practice,” he tells us, “is marked by self-control and truthfulness; the intermediate stage by moderation and humble mindedness; the final stage by freedom from thoughts and the sanctification of the body.”

Asceticism, he writes, is the first step in the ladder of ascension to theosis, where you free yourself from the tyranny of being tossed about by your impulses, rambling thoughts and passions, without firm foundation or inner peace. You will next enter a state of elucidation and moderation and, finally, a state of stillness, freedom from rambling thoughts and union with God.  

Ilias sheds light into the psychological and spiritual nuances of our experience during our journey. The danger he alerts us to is that of going through the steps mechanically without absorbing them, “owning” them and, hence, transforming ourselves.

Spiritual advancement is not a matter of checking items off a to-do list. The instructions that Ilias gives cannot be mechanically applied the way that, for example, instructions on how to put together a model airplane can be simply followed. He asks for the full engagement of the heart and intellect and the cultivation of discernment.

Even the first stage of self-control requires more effort than simply saying no to impulses. The way you do things, their timing and quality play an important role.

35. Ascetic practice consists not merely in managing to do what is right, but also in doing it rightly: the doer must concern himself with timeliness and congruity.

Yet ascetic practice, Ilias cautions, “cannot be consolidated without contemplation, and contemplation cannot be genuine without ascetic practice.” He continues, “Ascetic practice combined with contemplation is like the body united to its ruling spirit. Without contemplation, it is like flesh dominated by a spirit of self-will.”

Contemplation requires immersion of heart and soul, without the distraction of obsessive thoughts and personal preoccupations. As we become free from our own self-will, we will become one with God, unable to separate ourselves from Him.

41. The man engaged in ascetic practice drinks the draught of compunction during prayer, but the contemplative gets drunk with the best cup (cf. Ps. 23:5. LXX). The first meditates on things that are according to nature, while the second ignores even himself during prayer.

Without this level of immersion, we are just superficial and temporary guests in God’s house rather than participants in it. We may catch glimpses of the glory as observers without experiencing it.

42. The man engaged in ascetic practice cannot persist in spiritual contemplation for long. He is like a person who is being given hospitality but must shortly leave his host’s house.

How many times do we feel like temporary guests in our own home? We put so much effort in the way we present ourselves to others, defend our ideas and positions, create narratives about who we are that we cannot tell the difference between who we want to be and who we really are. Gaining control of things like our diet, exercise, burst of anger or overspending are steps in the right direction but will not fill the hole as we continue being mere guests in our home. Our vision of God is still veiled and, while we are controlling some bad habits and passions, we are still live our lives by reacting to what emanates from the senses.

Ilias gives us the analogy of “the oarsmen of the spiritual ship.”  The ascetic, who has gained self-control but not contemplative thought, needs the oars to get to the desired destination. The contemplative, on the other hand, no longer needs oars.

For during prayer the contemplative bids farewell to everything: himself holding the tiller of discernment he keeps awake throughout the night of contemplation, offering praises to Him who holds all things together. And perhaps he sings some love song to his soul as he watches the swell of the salty sea and the tumult of the waves, and marvels at the righteous judgments of God.

By entering a life of prayer in which we forget ourselves, we gain our true selves. If we are no longer caught up by impulses to impress others or control the conversation, we don’t need to be anxious about others’ opinions of us or feel worthless if we are not the center of attention or if things don’t go our way. We are the true owners of the house that God built within us.

51. The man engaged in ascetic practice finds that during prayer the knowledge of sensible things covers his heart like a veil, which he is unable to remove because of his attachment to these things. Only the contemplative man, owing to his non-attachment, can to some degree see the glory of God ‘with unveiled face’ (2 Cor. 3:18).

THE ABODE OF THE BLESSED, Ilias the Presbyter, A Gnomic Anthology Part lll

Philokalia, vol. 3

Ilias starts this section with a reassurance. Dispassion, we are told, is not a state that can only be achieved by monks and saints. It is not beyond ordinary human capacity. It is, in fact, a fundamental aspect of our humanity and a gift from God, which we overlook.

19. The paradise of dispassion hidden within us is an image of that in which the righteous will dwell.

In the preceding section, Ilias establishes 3 clear modes of the intellect –intellection, thought and sense-perception. He asks us to be able to recognize the category our own intellect falls in, at any given time.

In the remaining section, however, Ilias takes us beyond these categories, employing a dramatic interplay between stability and fluidity, recognizing and crossing classifications. 

This is because, for those on the highest level of spiritual contemplation, these categories of mind are no longer impermeable or separate. Because they are in a state of self-unity, they perceive God’s unity in all things beneath their surface. They see all things, no matter how disparate, as compatible pieces of a larger whole and perceive their unity with God.

This means that the persons who have achieved intellection—nous—do not inhabit only aethereal heights, disconnected from the land below. They can, in fact, descend to the material universe without being trapped in it because they still maintain the level of intellection that they achieved. They can sustain their “sublime” level of intellect even in the material world. Instead of being sullied by the world, they sanctify it.

21. The man of spiritual knowledge is one who descends from the realm of intellection to that of sense-perception in a sublime manner and who raises his soul heavenwards with humility.

It is, in fact, the ability to move among the categories “in a sublime matter” that makes us whole.

Being products of the reason, they use the imagination as a ladder, and so ascend from the world of the senses to the intellect, conveying to the latter the observations which they have derived from sense-perception; then they redescend from the intellect down to the world of the senses, communicating to it the intellect’s principles.

Imagine the freedom of participating in all dimensions of God’s universe while maintaining the peace of dispassion and union with God.

Ilias shows us the possibility of journeying beyond reason and virtue. Sense-perception and reason cannot reveal to us the inner essence of things beyond their appearance. Because we perceive the world through what is visible and what can be rationally categorized, we continue to experience divisions, preferences, conflicts and, thus, self-division.

We cannot fully give ourselves to love for people and God, for example, because our minds are divided between this love and judgment. Disappointment in our children’s life choices, remembrance of past insults, contempt for other’s opinions or preoccupation with our careers prevent us from fully experiencing the fullness and joy of complete love for them.

On the contrary when living in a state of self-unity, we are able to look beyond form (including gender), social status, our own thoughts and preferences to grasp the inner essence of things and perceive the unity with God.

25. One living in a state of self-division cannot avoid the distinction between male and female; but this may be done by one living in a state of self-unity, when the distinction between male and female is suppressed through attaining the divine likeness in Christ Jesus (cf. Gal. 5:28).

Yet, even if our foot slips and we experience the turmoil of self-division, there is hope in Lord’s salvation.

Ilias utilizes imagery of water as the antidote to sinfulness. Tears of repentance drown out sinfulness:

27. When the ship of sinfulness is overwhelmed by the flood of tears, evil thoughts will react like people drowning in the waves and trying to grasp hold of something so as to keep afloat.

A deer that has eaten a snake can still expel the poison by drinking water.

23. A deer that has eaten a snake, rushes to water in order to neutralize the poison.

What snake have we, ourselves, unwittingly eaten and allowed its poison to seep through our veins and limbs?  This is the implicit question that Ilias wants us to ask ourselves. What is it that divides us internally preventing us from unity with God and others? And where is the redeeming water of salvation we can drink?

Ilias shows us the possibility of going beyond virtue and reason, beyond the torture of self-division, to achieve unity with ourselves and God.

32. Through the practice of the virtues the outward aspects of the soul become like the silver-coated wings of a dove. Through contemplation its inward and intelligible aspects become golden. But the soul that has not in this way regained its beauty cannot soar aloft and come to rest in the abode of the blessed.

OPENING THE EYES OF YOUR HEART: Ilias the Presbyter (A Gnomic Anthology Part II, in Philokalia, vol. 3)



I am outraged by my sister’s political views. I can’t stand to even hear her finish her sentence. I break in, shouting out a series of facts that surely prove the folly of her position. I decide that her manner is abusive, and it suddenly dawns on me that there are other “abusive” relationships in my life. I pity myself and remember a disagreement with a colleague yesterday. All my professional relationships flash before my eyes. I replay them in my mind and find all kinds of proof of disrespect toward me.  How could I have allowed it? I get angrier and angrier at friends and colleagues and begin constructing scenarios of revenge. I get lost in imaginary dialogues where I clearly have the upper hand and my wit and irony puts others in their place.

In time, my anger and self-pity will surely engulf me and may push down happy memories of my sister and friends thus robbing me of the sweetness of love and lessons learned in relationships.

Ilias apparently, gets all this, though he lived centuries ago.

He has a name for the state of mind I allowed myself to enter– “sense-perception.” This means that my mind is so shrouded with material things and the passions these engender, that I am incapable of perceiving God’s presence “unveiled.”

When we are in the realm of sense perception, we are trapped on the surface like flies on a fly paper, without perceiving the presence of God behind the surface and experiencing His glory.

Until the intellect has seen God’s glory with ‘unveiled face’ (2 Cor. 3:18), the soul cannot say from experience of that glory: ‘I shall exult in the Lord, I shall delight in His salvation’ (cf. Ps. 35:9. LXX). For its heart is still shrouded in self-love, so that the world’s foundations – the inner essences of things – cannot be revealed to it.


Ilias comes to our rescue by giving us a practical toolkit for becoming “unstuck,” which is highly relevant to us as 22nd century dwellers.

He first reminds us that “given free rein, the intellect is insatiable.” He thus asks us to turn upside down today’s models for thinking by demonstrating that our need for absolute freedom to think and dream can drive us to spiritual slavery. Without restraint and focus, we enter the realm of intellectual self-indulgence that separates us from God. 

One of the most important lessons he teaches us is how to detect the state of our intellect at any given time. Even if we are caught in great spiritual turmoil, recognition of our state of mind and awareness of right and wrong times are the first steps to detachment. They will, in themselves, give us a raft of self-control, on which we can begin building our defense against self-indulgence.

Ilias’ toolkit is especially helpful in going against the grain of a culture of self-indulgence where it is increasingly difficult to say “no” and “deprive” ourselves. We are encouraged to fulfill dreams and passions, respect our impulses, pamper ourselves, avoid inconvenience and restriction at all costs. The only acceptable discipline is perhaps at the gym or healthy nutrition where our own ideal image of self, drives our actions. It is difficult to fully understand ascetic practice in a culture of intellectual self-indulgence, but this is what Ilias asks us to do.

Though Ilias addresses monastics, it is not difficult to translate his arsenal of weapons for the ordinary men and women of today. We start our ascendance to spiritual contemplation simply through the ability to say “no.” No to the first wondering thought, no to the extra helping of food, no to the impulse to overspend on a spontaneous purchase. This is the first step in freeing out intellect “from self-indulgence in the body.”  

To be able to resist, however, we must understand the realms of the intellect and identify the realm we are in at any given time.

The man of spiritual knowledge must recognize when his intellect is in the realm of intellection, when it is in that of thought, and when in that of sense-perception. And in each case, he must recognize whether it is there at the right time or at the wrong time.

There three realms within which our intellect dwells:

  • The realm of sense-perception that “is associated with all manner of visible and material things.” This includes passions and unruly thoughts that emanate from what our senses see, hear and experience.
  • The realm of thought — that of rational thinking and understanding. This is when we begin to perceive God’s essence and purpose behind visible things.
  • The realm of intellection, that goes beyond sense perception and rational thought to, not only “apprehend the inner essences” of tangible things but also “to grasp those of incorporeal beings” and participate in the essence of God.

To navigate the three realms and constantly ascend from the lowest to the highest, we must learn to identify them. We must also possess the self-restraint to say no and go against the grain of our culture and habitual impulses.


It is hard to visualize the joy of union with God if you have not experienced it. Ilias does his best to convey the experience.

When you free yourself from intellectual self-indulgence and distinguish the divine principles beyond visible things “the eyes of your heart will be opened, and you will be able clearly to meditate on the divine principles inscribed within it; and their sweetness to your spiritual taste will be greater than that of honey.”  

In essence, Ilias gives us the tools for spiritual contemplation, describes the losses of a world limited to tangible realities and describes the process we must undertake to achieve theosis, and the rewards of each state we achieve.

THE DIMMING OF THE LIGHT: Ilias The Presbyter (A Gnomic Anthology Part II,in Philokalia, vol. 3)


Picture our soul the way Ilias describes it, as perched precariously between the senses and the spirit–“between sensible and spiritual light.” Nothing is guaranteed. Finding the proper balance between the two is our responsibility. If we are weighed down by the senses—whether they be greed, the single- minded pursuit of ambition, thoughts of revenge or obsession with material things– we cannot enter the world of spirit and revel in its light.

I used to think that sin entered our lives with a thunder—loud, clearly perceptible and easily distinguishable from the norm of quietness in our homes.

The early Fathers of the church, however, show the devious and beguiling way in which sin enters our intellect as a tiny, barely perceptible thought or image that appears insignificant and harmless. By engaging with it, we allow it to dominate our thoughts until it has become obsessive. We descend into spiritual death once we become so accustomed to it that it becomes part of our “normality,” the way we routinely think and behave.

Becoming a habit and way of life is the most insidious and devious aspect of sin. 

We are surprised that those in dysfunctional families and relationships do not immediately leave at the first sign of abuse or dysfunction. Now we know that after a while, people are not able to discern clearly between health and dysfunction, normalcy and unacceptable living conditions. They become so accustomed to addiction, abuse, hoarding and other unhealthy ways of life that dysfunction begins to appear as the norm rather than the exception.

Ilias reminds us to watch out, not just for obvious transgressions, but for habitual patterns in the way we think that have become second nature to us.

But as a result of man’s inveterate habit of mind, the light of the Spirit has grown dim within the soul, whereas the light of the sensible world shines more brightly within it. Consequently, it cannot fix its attention totally on things divine unless it is wholly united with intelligible light during prayer. In this way, it is compelled to stand midway between darkness and light, linked to spiritual light through participation, and to sensible light by means of the fantasy.

Our gateway to spiritual light is prayer. Yet, “an intellect subject to passion cannot penetrate the narrow gate of prayer until it abandons the cares to which it has attached itself. So long as it remains continually occupied with bodily matters, it will inflict suffering on itself.”

If the intellect lacks prayer,” Ilias continues, “then worldly cares, like ‘clouds driven about by the wind and bringing no rain’ (Jude, verse 12), deprive it of its native luminosity.”

To allow the light to grow within us, requires us to root out habits of thought that drive our lives and submerge us in a world of anxiety and preoccupation with material things. Detachment will enable us to live lives of prayer, and our souls to “rise upwards and realize its true dignity.”

Our goal, Ilias reminds us, should be “the city from which ‘pain, sorrow and sighing have fled away’ (Isa. 35:10. LXX).”

The Freedom of Imperceptible Steps: ILIAS THE PRESBYTER (A Gnomic Anthology Part 1,in Philokalia, vol. 3)


In patristic writings there is an emphasis on the relationship between soul and body as manifested in the minute, daily spiritual warfare on our journey to theosis. Theological concepts come to life through the profound psychology of how they are experienced and manifested at every moment of our lives. Nothing—not a gesture, sensation, passing thought or daily habit—is insignificant. Ilias, like other patristic writers, shows the interrelationship and delicate balance among them and their connection to the salvation or demise of our soul.  

Ilias takes a hopeful view in these pages. It is true that we must maintain constant watchfulness and discernment over everything—no matter how deceptively innocent or small it may be. However, this is not an overwhelming burden. If we break down big concepts into tiny pieces in thought and action, it means that we are enabled to have control of our lives. Don’t overwhelm yourself with seemingly unattainable goals such as reaching immediate union to God, Ilias implies. Begin, instead, with the low bearing fruit:

Among the things that lie within our power are the virtues of prayer and silence; among the things that depend for the most part not on us, but on the constitution of the body, are fasting and vigil. Hence the spiritual aspirant must try to attain whatever is more accessible to him.

It is difficult for most of us to break down the big picture into doable, component steps and to see small steps as pieces of a larger whole. People are divided into “thinkers” and “doers” with the former lost in ideas without an eye to execution, and the latter lost in tactical details without the ability to see how they fit into a larger vision and goals.

For the organizations I consulted with, change seemed fascinating to discuss but overwhelming to execute. They envisioned the implementation of a customer-centric approach in global terms–having to turn around their entire organization in one fell swoop, immediately changing employee roles, the basis for compensation and rewards, the architecture of the building, their websites, messages, conferences, personalities and lives. They became resentful, overwhelmed and paralyzed.

Change, however, is not an abstract concept. It takes root when it is lodged in small everyday things and habits. Start talking about clients at meetings rather than only talk about the organization’s achievements, for example. Take a few extra minutes to ask a question of, or chat with, a customer rather than rushing them through transactions which you view as nuisance.

Ilias shows how passions and virtues are not abstractions but are embedded in small steps that eventually add up:

You will not be able to attain the greater virtues until you have fully achieved those which lie within your power.

The death of your soul, likewise, is brought about gradually through small, barely perceptible things.

64. Do not fetter yourself to a small thing and you will not be enslaved to a greater one. For the greater evil is built up only on the basis of the smaller.

63. By being mindful of greater evils, you will also be fearful of smaller ones; but if you give way to the greater evils, you will shamefully indulge in the lesser as well.

Ilias has shown before the necessity for delicate balance between dualities and the goal of reconciliation between the two.  Mercy and truth must coexist for true virtue to take place, Ilias writes. Along the same vein, he has already told us that truth without humility and practice without discernment can, in fact, be destructive and detrimental to salvation.

67. In those in whom mercy and truth prevail, everything is godlike; for truth judges no one without mercy, while mercy never manifests compassion apart from truth.

In God there are no divisions or contradictions. This is why, when when we practice virtue in isolation, without coupling it with humility and discernment, we will not be able to experience the joy of God’s full presence through this practice. When we find the balance between elements, we become whole. Our lives become simple since we are no longer tormented by contradictions and incomplete truths, and we are able to fully give ourselves to God. The task is not overwhelming because we grow spiritually small step by small step.

Who is capable of deriving joy from virtuous action, Ilias asks? He startles us with the erotic description of the union between man and woman from the Song of Songs, in which sensual immersion in the body of a woman is used as metaphor for spiritual immersion in God through theosis. The erotic ecstasy of sexual fulfillment is a perfect metaphor for the rapturous joy,  derived when we have achieved full union with God.

75. Words of eternal life drop from the lips of dispassion like honey from the honeycomb (cf. Song of Songs 4:11). Who then is worthy of touching her lip with his own, of lying between her breasts (cf. Song of Songs 1:13), and smelling the fragrance of her clothes (cf. Song of Songs 4:10, 11) – that is to say, of rejoicing in the laws of the virtues which are, it is said, superior to all the perfumes perceived by the senses?

Ilias the Presbyter, Philokalia, vol. 3: The Silence of Humility


If you had to pick just one commandment to follow, Ilias writes, let it be humility.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-2.jpeg

All Fathers talk about humility as a cardinal virtue, yet familiarity often discourages re-thinking and introspection. What is it that we learn from Ilias about humility?

Humility, Ilias tells us, is not just an equal part of the whole. It is the prerequisite for getting a seat at the table; the engine, without which, the locomotive cannot move.

If we lack humility, we cannot ascend to God no matter how brilliant we may be or how much we engage in ascetic practice. In fact, without humility, we are simply not true aspirants to God, just as a merchant, no matter how skillful, cannot be called a true merchant if he lacks merchandise.

 41. Lacking gold, a merchant is not a merchant, even though he may be very skillful in trading

“Similarly,” Ilias continues, “lacking humility, a spiritual aspirant will never possess the joys of virtue, however great the confidence he places in his own intelligence.”

Why is it impossible to taste the joys of virtues without humility?

Ilias is inequivalent about the impossibility to be virtuous without humility.

Just as he who lacks gold is poor, even though this may not be outwardly apparent, so the spiritual aspirant who lacks humility is not virtuous.

Apparent virtues, in fact, without humility can convert into the opposite– sources of pride, hunger for praise, contempt of others, competitiveness. The turmoil and inner “noise” they generate prevent us from experiencing joy and peace when we practice virtues.   

Even the noble virtue of truth can be destructive without humility.

Truth without humility is blind. That is why it becomes contentious: it tries to support itself on something and finds nothing except rancor.

A truth, for example about exercise, healthy eating, a political fact, etc., can lead to self-righteousness and divisiveness without humility. Our own world is fragmented into factions that turn a truth into a weapon for attacking those who disagree, a justification for isolating themselves and a narrow lens through which they perceive everything else in the world.


Silence is another manifestation of humility. Without humility and restraint, we cannot achieve inner stillness and silence. Whether it is practice gone astray through the excess of asceticism, pride that causes jealousy, contempt, or comparisons with others, the absence of humility drowns out inner stillness and silence. Our souls are weighed down with anxious thoughts and warring passions and cannot experience the joy of the virtuous practiced.

Not all types of silence are the same. Silence, for example, is not simply the absence of speech, though it may be a first step. It is the absence of passions in one’s heart and the peace that stems from it. This is what Ilias calls “intelligent” or “quality” silence.

54. You can achieve frugality by lowering the quantity of your food, and sinlessness in speech by raising the quality of your silence.

Humility is enabled by, as well it enables, inner silence and restraint. We are asked to go beyond a virtuous act, such as charity and lose ourselves in another through empathy. We are called to set aside rampant thoughts and preoccupations with our own agenda so we can truly focus on others. Performing charity for praise or to check an unpleasant obligation off our list does not produce joy. While our hands or words perform virtuous deeds, our hearts are not freed from attachment to passions. We look like servants on the surface, but in our hearts we remain masters, losing the opportunity for love and connection and the peace of inner silence.  

50. He who washes his neighbor’s garment with inspired words, or who sews it up by contributing to his needs, has the outward appearance of a servant, but is really a master. But when he acts in this way, he must be careful to do so truly as a servant, lest by growing conceited he loses both his reward and his proper rank.

Through restraint and humility, we can harness passions to a good purpose. We are no subject to their control. We are no longer fragmented and conflicted. The entirety of our heart, soul and body are harmonized and aimed at the same goal.

52. ‘The Lord will guard your going out and your coming in’ (Ps. 121:8): that is. He will enable you by means of self-control to watch over the food you-take in and the words you give out. For the person who exercises self-control over food and speech escapes the desire that enters through the eyes and calms the anger that issues from a disordered mind. The spiritual aspirant must exercise the greatest care and exert himself in every way in relation to these two passions. By so doing he will strengthen his practice of the virtues and put his contemplation on a sound basis.

Ilias the Presbyter, Philokalia, vol.3:  Discerning Degrees in Good and Evil

A Gnomic Anthology, Part 1, #23-39

Ilias returns to, and embellishes, the theme of discernment or “discrimination” he introduced earlier.

“Without discrimination,” Ilias told us, “neither practice nor spiritual knowledge can fulfill its purpose.”

Nothing is black or white, he reminds us in these few pages and introduces the concept of “degrees.”

Although moral judgment is by nature indivisible, there are none the less different degrees of it.

Though we are tempted by the senses the degree of our attachment varies:

For although all men are subject to the senses, not all pay them the same amount of tribute.

We cannot automatically condemn qualities such as ignorance, for example, without understanding its context and intentionality.

37. A haughty person is not aware of his faults, or a humble person of his good Qualities. An evil ignorance blinds the first, an ignorance pleasing to God blinds the second.

Ilias invites us to discern the depths of the soul and its subtle variations beyond appearance. Beyond apparent health, for example, may lie darkness of the soul.

From the outside a soul may appear to be healthy, while within, in the depths of consciousness, it may suffer from some hidden sickness.

Beneath acts of generosity may lie a desire to look good to others; or the goal of finding an easy act of grace that involves giving only what we do not need while zealously guarding what we perceive as necessary.

A truly merciful person is not one that deliberately gives away superfluous things, but one that forgives those who deprive him of what he needs.

In short, Ilias does not give us moral rules that we can follow mechanically. He asks for continuous watchfulness and engagement of the soul and heart as we constantly pierce appearance to uncover underlying truths and are able to see the degrees between opposites.


Lack of discernment doesn’t only prevent us from discovering nuanced degrees and the infirmity underneath apparent health. It can also prevent us from perceiving the glory of God’s nature, as our mind is focused on rules-keeping and “superfluous” things.  

Few are circumspect with regard to what is according to nature, but many with regard to what is contrary to nature. For having expended out of fear all their intrinsic quota of circumspection on what is contrary to nature, they have little left to exercise with regard to what is according to nature. Indeed, they expend most of it on superfluous things and what is by nature worthless.

For most of us the texture of daily life consists of things like “to do” lists, gratuitous and obsessive thoughts, anxiety over deadlines and appearances, efforts at controlling outcomes and other people. Our thoughts are racing, and our minds become cluttered. Only inner stillness–“an intelligent silence” — will allow us to fully discern the presence of God and be present ourselves at the “right moment.”

26. A sense of the right moment and a sense of proportion go hand in hand with an intelligent silence. Truth is the banquet of all the three together. Where there is such a banquet, the father of lies, confronting a soul as it departs from this life, will not find in it any of the things he looks for.


Discernment requires humility and openness to possibilities. Blame and criticism automatically engender flight or fight reactions in us. With discernment and the inner stillness that enables it, we remain dispassionate and open.

33. Do not shun the person who opportunely berates you; but go to him and he will show you how much evil lies hidden from your consciousness. Once you have swallowed the bitter and nauseous draught, you will taste the sweet nourishment of health.

In fact, we are asked to see pain and reproof the way Olympic athletes view the relentless training they undergo: the more of it, the highest their chances for success.

34. The greater the pain that you feel, the more you should welcome the person whose reproof makes you feel it. For he is bringing about within you that total purification without which your intellect cannot attain the pure state of prayer.

Just as discernment calls for the understanding of degrees and hidden truths, we are called by Ilias to go beyond the surface and mere reactions and discern the possibility of salvation behind pain.

39. Reproof strengthens the soul, whereas praise debilitates it and makes it even more sluggish in its spiritual struggle.

Ilias the Presbyter, Philokalia, vol.3: Becoming Spiritual Sprinters

A Gnomic Anthology, Part 1, #1-22


The fathers in Philokalia often talk about the necessity of manifesting faith through action. They show that neither faith nor action, neither intellect nor practice, are sufficient unto themselves, without each other.

Ilias delineates 4 types of practice. Practices concerning:

  • The body– fasting and vigil
  • The mouth– prayer and silence’
  • The soul–self-control and simplicity
  • The intellect–prayer and meditation


It is not enough, however, to practice virtues without maintaining the delicate spiritual ecology among all elements.

“Without discrimination,” Ilias tells us, “neither practice nor spiritual knowledge can fulfill its purpose. For practice uncontrolled by such knowledge strays here and there aimlessly, like a calf; while knowledge that refuses to clothe itself in the honorable vesture of practice lacks nobility, however much it may pretend to possess it.”

Without discrimination, virtues can become vices as they evolve into ends unto themselves, separated from their goal of uniting with God. In fact, the practice of virtues—fasting, simplicity, health and exercise, adherence to the commandments or working hard — can convert into addictions when, decoupled from restraint and love, become increasingly intense and extreme and serve to impress others rather than unite us with God. 

A courageous soul acts correctly when it is master of both practice and contemplation,


Beyond discrimination in the practice of virtues, Ilias points to a deeper orientation of our heart toward good or evil. He makes distinctions in the practice of good or evil that depend on this more nuanced and profound orientation. There is a difference, for example,  between those who are “essentially good” even if they occasionally commit evil acts, and those who are essentially evil.

Clearly, those who lapse, while they are essentially good, will sin less than those who intentionally commit evil.

12. The virtuous may appear to be bad, but essentially they are good; superficially the self-important and pleasure loving may appear to be good, but basically they are evil.

13. The person who hates evil commits it but seldom and then not intentionally. But the person attached to the causes of evil commits it frequently and deliberately.

Those aiming for good but unintentionally lapsing are capable of repentance and, thus, renewal and salvation.

14. Those who deliberately refuse to repent sin continually; those who sin without meaning to not only repent with all their heart, but also do not often have cause to repent.

If your heart is not fundamentally oriented toward good, if “you still look on vice with a feeling of pleasure,” it willbe difficult to remain virtuous, no matter how vigorous and extreme your practice. To balance practice with intellect you heart must “hunger for the taste of virtue” and you must be willing to “avert your gaze from every form of evil.”


Before starting the race, runners are mentally and physically already in the race. They crouch, ready to spring when the signal is given, fully committed and oriented toward the race. Every muscle of their body is taut and ready to pounce, their mind and heart are focused on reaching their destination.  

Christians must be spiritual runners, fully oriented toward God, equipped and ready to join the battle.   

No Christian believing rightly in God should ever be off his guard. He should always be on the look-out for temptation, so that when it comes he will not be surprised or disturbed, but will gladly endure the toil and affliction it causes, and so will understand what he is saying when he chants with the prophet: ‘Prove me, 0 Lord, and try me’(Ps. 26:2. LXX).

Their hearts and souls must be fully oriented toward their destination and practice must be coupled with discrimination.

Being Fully Present: St. Philotheos of Sinai, Philokalia, vol 3

Forty Texts on Watchfulness

Like scenes of epic battles unfolding before you on the movie screen, the demons in this chapter conduct a fierce but invisible warfare as they…

…wage war upon us through our thoughts and are full of anger against us

Using military terms throughout, he refers to them as “this whole detachment of the enemy” that must be “put out of action through prayer.”

Yet, the battle plan does not call for fighting fire by being inflamed ourselves. On the contrary, we deploy our only weapon that works against the devil, God, by entering a state of sobriety called nipsis or watchfulness.

It is through unceasing watchfulness that we can perceive what is entering into us and can to some extent close the door against it, calling upon our Lord Jesus Christ to repel our malevolent adversaries.

The opposite of watchfulness is forgetfulness. Philotheos quotes Christ’s words in the Gospel of Luke: keeping guard over the heart and mind.

‘Then comes the devil and snatches the word out of their hearts’ – that is to say, he steals it by inducing them to forget it – ‘lest they should believe and be saved’ (Luke 8:12).

Instead of the passive indulgence that forgetfulness enables, we are asked to deploy discipline by being watchful and drawing a very precise battle strategy:

Be extremely strict in guarding your intellect.


 In the Greek, the word for “strict” is akrivia which means precision.

Να φρουρείς το νου σου με πάρα πολύ μεγάλη ακρίβεια.

Philotheos employs another term for watchfulness: attentiveness—prosochi or προσοχή in Greek—that brings out the notion of precision and focus.

 Let us go forward with the heart completely attentive and the soul fully conscious. For if attentiveness and prayer are daily joined together, they become like Elijah’s fire-bearing chariot (cf. 2 Kgs. 2:11), raising us to heaven.

I believe that the concept of “attentiveness” highlights another side of watchfulness–the notion of complete presence at specific moments in time and, thus, readiness for action.  

Philotheos has already told us that in true prayer, we are no longer torn by conflict, no longer divided between the present and the past, God and the world. Instead, we bring all of ourselves to Him, not just the fragment that is convenient at that time. In attentiveness, we are made whole and fully present in God.  

An Orthodox blog discusses the concept of holistic presence implied by watchfulness:

Bishop Kallistos Ware tells us that ‘watchfulness means, among other things, to be present where we are – at this specific point in space, at this particular moment in time.  All too often we are scattered and dispersed, we are living, not with alertness in the present, but with nostalgia in the past, or with misgiving and wishful thinking in the future. . . The neptic man, then, is gathered into the here and now.  He is the one who seizes ‘kairos’, the decisive moment of opportunity.”

This complete presence in God allows us to hone and deploy our weapons against the devil with precision.

Attentiveness obstructs the demons by rebutting them; and Jesus, when invoked, disperses them together with all their fantasies.

In the Greek text the absence of fear and willingness to battle are a little more pronounced by employing “talking back” instead of “rebutting.” 

 Attentiveness (using the word for prayer here) prevents and talks back to them.

Η προσευχή πάλι εμποδίζει και αντιλέγει σ’ αυτούς,

 The steps are clear. First you discern and fight thoughts the moment they first enter your mind.

…when you perceive an evil thought rebut it (in the Greek: talk back to it) and immediately call upon Christ to defend you

Όταν λοιπόν αντιληφθείς κάποιο λογισμό, αντιμίλησε σ’ αυτόν, και αμέσως κάλεσε γρήγορα τον Χριστό να σε υπερασπιστεί.

You then pray to Christ with a heart that is completely open and present so that you transition from the fight mode to love and a relationship with God.

….and while you are still speaking, Jesus in His gentle love will say: ‘Behold, I am by your side ready to help you.’

Watchfulness, then, is not simply a defensive mechanism but a vessel for experiencing the constant presence of Christ within us, for enabling us to mystically unite with Him and  for preparing us for action:

Jesus draws near, He illumines the heart; for remembrance of Him confers on us or for a moment, glorify Him who has saved you, and meditate on death.

What do I mean? A spiritual heaven, with sun, moon and stars, is formed in the blessed heart of one who has reached a state of watchfulness, or who strives to attain it; for such a heart, as a result of mystical contemplation and ascent, is enabled to contain within itself the uncontainable God. If, then, you aspire to holiness, Cry with God’s help to invoke the Lord and wholeheartedly to turn words into actions.